Indonesia was rich in marine resources with about 75% of the country consisting of coastal waters and open seas. It is an archipelagic nation with 3.1 million square kilometers of teritorial waters and 2.7 million square kilometers of Exclusive Economic Zone [EEZ]. The seas of Indonesia abounded with aquatic life, and its picturesque coral reefs were home to 42,000 square kilometers of coral reefs or 16.4 percent of the world’s total, ranking it second only to australia in terms of coral reef area.
Indonesia is also at the heart of the world’s “Coral Triangle”, so called because of its very high diversity of more than 70 genera and 450 species of corals. The Coral Triangle comprises six nations, namely, Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia, Timor Leste, Papua New Guinea, and Solomon Islands. Its unique position places the coral reef of Indonesia as extremely important regionally because of their role not only in the lives of Indonesians but also in the lives of other peoples in the region as well. Coral reefs, are sources of important pharmaceutical ingredients. They also absorb carbon dioxide from the athmosphere; so their part in helping to adress global warming should not be underestimated.